PERSONAL, SOCIAL, HEALTH AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
'To lead independent, happy lives, children must develop their self-confidence. This involves taking responsibility for their own health and well being. In this subject, children learn about these important life skills.' (www.parentcentre.gov.uk)
- To provide opportunities for all children to learn, achieve and develop self-confidence, self-worth and self-esteem (whilst taking into consideration their home lives and backgrounds)
- To promote spiritual, moral, social and cultural development.
- To prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life.
- To consider the needs of others and promote positive attitudes for equal opportunities.
- To learn how to respond appropriately in different situations.
- To develop confidence, knowledge and skills to lead a healthy, happy lifestyle.
Planning and organisation
Hankham School PSHE scheme of work links aspects of the QCA Citizenship scheme of work and the PSHE Handbook, guidance and documentation by the PSHE Advisory Team for East Sussex County Council / Brighton & Hove. The Scheme of Work developed for the school is carefully planned to ensure all aspects of the curriculum are covered.
The main strands of both frameworks, and our scheme of work are:
- Developing confidence and responsibility and makings the most of their abilities;
- Preparing to play an active role as citizens;
- Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle; and
- Developing good relationships and respecting differences between people (See Sex Education policy)
Early years provision is provided by the 'Guidance for the Foundation Stage' by the PSHE Advisory Team for East Sussex County Council / Brighton & Hove.(This is used on a biennial programme with the Year 1 targets to ensure coverage).
See Hankham School Scheme of work for more details – Appendix 1
Children learn best when they are part of a stimulating, well planned, caring and purposeful environment. In order to prepare children for Key Stage 1, it is essential that children feel valued, secure and happy. PSHE permeates through all aspects of the curriculum and as a school we aim to produce positive, attentive and sociable children.
As a school we are aware that effective PSHE in the foundation stage is:
- Building on the learning that children are engaged with at all times, as best reflected in their playing and talking and;
- Providing teaching opportunities that systematically help children to learn, make connections in their learning, reflect on learning and move forward.
(PSHE Advisory Team for East Sussex County Council / Brighton & Hove).
Teachers of the foundation stage ensure that children can explore all aspects of their personal and social development, through exploration within a carefully planned curriculum.
Key Stages 1 & 2
Due to the school being organised in mixed year group classes, it is essential that a carefully planned scheme of work incorporates all aspects of the PSHE curriculum, whilst ensuring that repetition is on a biennial (as opposed to annual) rotation.
The Hankham scheme of work includes all relevant strands of the curriculum, incorporating ideas from both the QCA and PSHE Advisory Team for East Sussex County Council / Brighton & Hove guidelines. Teachers are provided with all relevant materials and are then free to interpret and use what is appropriate for their particular class, whilst ensuring proper coverage of each strand.
We believe that PSHE underpins all areas of school life and the curriculum, and we ensure that children adhere to these attitudes and values in as many different areas as possible.
Effective delivery of PSHE and Citizenship
There are a wide variety of activities conducive to the effective teaching of PSHE. Some are more relevant on a whole school basis:
- Assemblies – themed over a half term, assemblies occur daily (See RE policy)
- Curriculum areas – promoted by developing a sense of achievement, confidence and competence in subject areas, and an understanding of allowing others to succeed and achieve.
- Activity weeks – themed on a particular aspect of the PSHE / Citizenship curriculum
- Visitors and outside organisations – worthwhile and rewarding for the children if used correctly
When undertaking class / group work, it is essential to establish ground rules for all necessary activities. Some examples of rules may be:
- listen carefully to each other
- ensure that positive comments are made
- don't make fun of what others say / do
- be kind to each other
- take turns
- you don't have to say anything if you don't want to
Rules are pertinent to each group of children and each activity, so they will differ.
Some knowledge about children's prior learning may be needed for classroom activities. Techniques for establishing information may include:
- Group / class brainstorming
- Responding to / interpreting and incident / story
- 'graffiti' sheets
- photographs / pictures to stimulate discussion
- pupil-to-pupil interviews
- a 'round' where all children contribute something they know about the area / topic
- use of journals
It is necessary to carefully plan groups for some activities, considering the emotional and social requirements for the work. Activities for group work may include:
- role-play – a useful medium for children to explore their own feelings and reactions to situations.
- circle time – needs an atmosphere of trust, respect and cooperation. This is best used on a regular basis to ensure maximum success (see section below)
- Photographs / cameras – used by children to discuss / develop empathy (– own or published materials can be used).
- Stories – in assembly and class time. A good opportunity to empathise / comment on characters and actions.
- Games – especially to develop trust and cooperation
- 'Jigsaw' – where groups of children are then split to share ideas with other groups
(See Personal and Social Development sheets 1 – 4 for further activity ideas - Appendix 2)
To be discussed
Sensitive / controversial issues
There may be occasions where a teacher / whole school is required to deal with more sensitive / personal issues, e.g. death (see bereavement notes – Appendix 3), divorce, physical / verbal abuse / bullying, unemployment, financial issues, law and order, and physical and medical issues.
It is vital that these issues are dealt with considerately by each adult involved and that the head teacher is consulted if necessary. It is important that adults are not biased towards a view, unless necessary. The QCA teachers guidelines state.,
'The need for balance should not be regarded as inhibiting a clear stand against racism and other forms of discrimination. Our common values require that there are behaviours we should not tolerate. For example, racism, bullying and cruelty are never acceptable in any form'.
(QCA Teachers Guide, 2002, p.57)
Child Protection Confidentiality and Disclosure.
1. Hankham Primary School is committed to act in the best interest of all the individuals within the school community.
2. All staff and children need to be clear about the rules of confidentiality.
3. The school is not in a position to offer individuals wholly unconditional confidentiality, indeed there may be situations in which confidentiality would not serve the individuals best interest.
If in any classroom discussion pupil disclose information that would alert staff to child protection issues, then the usual procedures must be followed. in line with Circular 10/95, Protecting Children from Abuse: The role of the Education Service. All staff and pupils must be clear when child protection procedures should be implemented.
'Staff have a professional responsibility to share relevant information about the protection of children with other professionals, particularly investigative agencies. If a child confides in a member of staff and requests that the information is kept secret, it is important that the member of staff tells the child sensitively that he or she has a responsibility to refer cases of alleged abuse to the appropriate agencies for the child's own sake. Within that context, the child should, however, be assured that the matter will be disclosed only to people who need to know about it. Staff who receive information about children and their families in the course of their work should share that information only within appropriate professional contexts. Child protection records should be kept securely locked.' Taken from Circular 10/95, Confidentiality Section.
On rare occasions, children may divulge information that is personal and / or involving legal issues. If this occurs, teachers are responsible for ensuring that the matter is dealt with carefully. If necessary, this may involve informing the head teacher immediately and action will be decided, involving other staff / children / outside agencies (including the police) where necessary.
Recording and Assessment
There are no statutory requirements for end of key stage teacher assessment in PSHE and Citizenship at key stages 1 & 2. However, it is necessary for teachers to keep progress records and report to parents.
Assessment opportunities are available through children;
- giving a talk / presentation
- writing letters
- participating in discussions
- taking part in role-play
- devising a game
- interviewing people
and many other forms.
At Hankham, a 'Personal and Social Education' section is first on each end of year report. In this teachers may comment on aspects from the key stage statements outlined below:
During key stage 1, pupils learn about themselves as developing individuals and members of their communities, building on their own experiences and on early learning goals for personal, social and emotional development. They learn the basic rules and skills for keeping themselves healthy and safe and for behaving well. They have opportunities to show they can take some responsibility for themselves and their environment. They begin to learn about their own and other people's feeling and are becoming aware of the views, needs and rights of other children and older people. As members of a class and school community, they learn social skills such as how to share, take turns, play, help others, resolve simple arguments and resist bullying. They begin to take an active part in the life of their school and its neighbourhood.
During Key stage 2 pupils learn about themselves as growing and changing individuals with their own experiences and ideas, and as members of their communities, They become more mature, independent and self-confident. They learn about the wider world and the interdependence of communities within it. They develop their sense of social justice and moral responsibility and begin to understand that their own choices and behaviour can affect local, national or global issues and political and social institutions. They learn how to take part more fully in school and community activities. As they begin to develop into young adults, they face the changes of puberty and transfer to secondary school with support and encouragement from their school. They learn how to make more confident and informed choices about their health and environment; to take more responsibility, individually and in a group, for their own learning; and to resist bullying.
(QCA Teachers Guide, 2002, p.23)
Parents are also informed of any relevant personal and social issues that arise during everyday school life, and involved where necessary in decisions affecting their child's school life.
At Hankham we believe each child is valued as an individual. Children are rewarded for exceptional behaviour and academic achievement by receiving a 'Smiley' sticker and house point. The stickers contribute to awards which are given out by the head teacher in assembly marking significant groups such as 10, 20 30 40, 50 etc.