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SEX & RELATIONSHIPS EDUCATION

'Effective sex and relationship education does not encourage early sexual experimentation. It should teach young people to understand human sexuality and to respect themselves and others. It enables young people to mature, to build up their confidence and self-esteem and understand the reasons for delaying sexual activity. It builds up knowledge and skills which are particularly important today because of the many different and conflicting pressures on young people.'

(Sex and Relationship Education Guidance, 2000)

 

'Sex and relationship education is lifelong learning about sex, sexuality, emotions, relationships and sexual health. It involves acquiring information, developing skills and forming positive beliefs, values and attitudes. Sex and relationship education should empower children and young people, build self-esteem, offer a positive and open view of sex and support sexual self- acceptance and mutual respect'.

Sex & Relationship Education; Guidance for Schools, East Sussex , Brighton & Hove  2003

 

Aims

 

  • To develop in our pupils an understanding of the biological, emotional, social, legal and moral aspects of sex and sexuality.
  • To enable children to develop good relationships and respect the differences between people

 

SRE supports and promotes our pupils' 'spiritual, moral, social, cultural, mental and physical development and prepares them for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life'

Section 351 of the Education Reform Act 1996, the two broad aims for the school curriculum.

 

At Hankham Primary School SRE is underpinned by the ethos and values of our school and we uphold it as an entitlement for all our pupils. We recognise the need to work as a whole school community to ensure a shared understanding of SRE and the values under-pinning it and to deliver an effective programme that meets the needs of our pupils and taking into account the variety of faiths, abilities and backgrounds.

 

In our school, we are committed to working towards equality of opportunity in all aspects of school life as described in our Equal Opportunities Policies including our Race, Disability and Gender Equality Policies. We will make sure that our SRE programme is inclusive and we will consider the needs of vulnerable groups, such as looked after children, in the planning and delivery of our programme. Please also refer to the school inclusion policy.

 

 

Planning and Organisation

 

  • SRE is firmly rooted in our school's PSHE and Citizenship framework. By teaching in this way, we ensure continuity and progression; a safe and supportive learning environment; and teaching within the wider context of building self-esteem, emotional well being, relationships and healthy lives. 
  • Hankham School 's Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) scheme of work is in line with the East Sussex County Council Sex and Relationship Guidance (2003). As for our PSHE curriculum, it links aspects of the QCA Citizenship scheme of work and the PSHE Handbook, guidance and documentation by the PSHE Advisory Team for East Sussex County Council / Brighton & Hove. It follows, and is delivered through the main strands outlined in our PSHE policy.

We aim to develop an understanding in our pupils of the biological, emotional, social, legal and moral aspects of sex and sexuality. We teach SRE within the wider context of building self-esteem, emotional well-being, relationships and healthy lives beginning in the early years through to Year 6. The SRE curriculum will be concerned with:

  • the discussion of attitudes and values
  • the development of a range of personal and social skills
  • the provision of factual information and the development of the understanding of it

 

The objectives for SRE should match the age and maturity of the pupils involved. For KS1 and KS2, our learning outcomes include:

 

Attitudes and Values

  • to learn the value of respect, love and care
  • to learn to value and respect ourselves and others
  • to develop an understanding and valuing of diversity
  • to promote a positive attitude to healthy lifestyle and keeping safe
  • to developing an understanding of the value of family life and an appreciation of the many different types of family.

 

Personal and Social Skills

  • to learn how to identify and manage emotions confidently and sensitively
  • to develop self-respect and empathy for others
  • to develop communication skills with peers, school and family
  • to learn how to assess risk and to develop strategies for keeping safe
  • to develop the ability to give and secure help
  • to develop an understanding of difference and an absence of prejudice.

 

Knowledge and Understanding

  • to recognise and name the main external parts of the body including agreed names for sexual parts
  • to know the basic rules for keeping themselves safe and healthy
  • to know about human life processes such as conception, birth and puberty
  • to develop an understanding of the physical and emotional aspects of puberty
  • to learn that safe routines can stop the spread of viruses such as HIV
  • to know who can provide help and support.

 

The Sex and Relationship Education Curriculum

 

SRE is delivered through the four interrelated strands of PSHE:

 

A) Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of pupils' abilities.

B) Preparing to play an active role as citizens.

C) Developing a healthy safer lifestyle.

D) Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between      

People.

 

The QCA guidance on PSHE & citizenship includes the Breadth of opportunities pupils' need to develop their knowledge, skills and understanding and these are embraced in our whole school approach to PSHE. In PSHE, SRE is placed within the context of talking about feelings and relationships. Ensuring SRE is embedded within PSHE will ensure a focus upon self-esteem and respect for self and others.

 

The SRE programme also includes elements of the statutory Science curriculum, which is mandatory for all pupils. Parents / carers are not able to withdraw their children from National Curriculum Science.

 

National Curriculum Science

 

Key Stage 1.

1.b) That animals including humans, move, feed, grow, use their senses and reproduce.

2.a) To recognise and compare the main external parts of the bodies of humans.

   f) That humans and animals can produce offspring and these grow into  adults.

4.a)To recognise similarities and differences between themselves and others and treat others with sensitivity.

 

Key Stage 2.

1.a) That the life processes common to humans and other animals include nutrition, growth and reproduction.

2.f) About the main stages of the human life cycle.

 

 

See Appendix 2 for Schemes of Work.

 

SEAL (Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning)

We also use aspects of the SEAL curriculum to support our SRE and PSHCE work. The curriculum resource aims to develop the underpinning qualities and skills that help promote positive behaviour and effective learning. It focuses on five social and emotional aspects of learning: self-awareness, managing feelings, motivation, empathy and social skills.

 

The Organisation of Sex and Relationship Education

 

Co-ordination

 

SRE is co-ordinated by the PSHCE Subject Leader. S/he is responsible for the overall planning, implementation and review of the programme. S/he monitors the planning and delivery of content, provides appropriate resources, and offers guidance and support in the delivery and assessment of SRE.

 

The PSHCE Co-ordinator will endeavour to keep up-to-date with materials and guidance for SRE, in line with other curriculum areas. The school will support this by affording him/her regular opportunities for appropriate training. S/he may lead, organise or inform staff and the wider school community of training and current issues.

 

Staffing

 

Class teachers with their understanding and knowledge about their pupils in terms of age, maturity, development, religious, cultural and special needs are in the best position to deliver most SRE. Therefore, It is our aim that all teachers will be able to deliver SRE in their class with support and training. Support staff and teaching assistants will receive training so they can work with class teachers effectively.

 

In the unlikely scenario of a member of staff expressing concern about teaching SRE they will be supported. The PSHCE Co-ordinator will offer support and ensure the delivery of the SRE programme.

 

 

Role of Governors

 

The governors have been consulted on this policy and have ratified it. The governor for PSHCE  supports the PSHCE Subject Leader  in monitoring the implementation of this policy.

 

Training and Development Needs

 

We will provide appropriate training for all staff and governors whenever necessary.

 

Visitors

 

We welcome the support of visitors offering specialist support and links with the community. The school nurse, other health professionals and Theatre in Education groups, may be involved at different stages of the programme.

 

Visitor sessions always complement the existing SRE provision and never replace or substitute teacher-led curriculum provision.

 

Effective Delivery of SRE

 

Curriculum planning for SRE is part of the whole school planning process for PSHE and Citizenship and is informed by the National Curriculum Science Orders.

            The content of the SRE programme will be delivered in a variety of ways, including:

  • Designated SRE curriculum times, which provide focused opportunities for raising specific issues in a safe and structures session. At Hankham, due to the mixed age classes, we ensure at Key Stage 2 that SRE is largely delivered in single year groups.
  • Cross-curricular links, when appropriate SRE may also be delivered in Science, Literacy, RE and Humanities.
  • Circle-time
  • Other one off-event days / weeks – such as assemblies, healthy weeks / days.

 

Differentiation and Entitlement for all

 

At Hankham we are committed to working towards equality of opportunity in all aspects of school life.

 

 

Special Educational Needs and learning difficulties.

 

Our pupils have different abilities based on their emotional and physical development, life experiences, literacy levels and learning difficulties. However, we aim to ensure that all pupils are properly included in SRE.

Some pupils with SEN may be more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation than their peers, and others may be confused about what is acceptable public behaviour. These pupils in particular will need to develop skills to reduce these risks.

Teachers may have to be more explicit an plan work in different ways in order to meet the needs of individual pupils. We will aim that this is always done in consultation with parents / carers.

 

Gender

 

SRE is generally taught in mixed gender groups so that children are encouraged to work with each other, It is important that both boys and girls know about the experience of puberty of the opposite gender.

There can be opportunities made for children who wish to discuss a gender specific issue in single gender groups. At Key Stage 2, we also have question boxes so that all children are able to ask questions they may wish to in a more private manner.

 

Religion and Ethnicity

 

At Hankham, we seek to recognise he diverse beliefs of religious and minority ethnic communities and aim to value and celebrate cultural diversity. We explore assumptions about different cultural beliefs and clause, and encourage activities, which challenge stereotypes. We use a range of teaching material and resources that reflect cultural diversity and encourage a sense of inclusiveness.

We are aware that pupils and adults in our school may hold different religious and cultural beliefs about SRE. We will encourage consultation and discussion with pupils and parents to ensure that we consider any important issues that may be raised.

 

Teaching and Learning Strategies

 

We will use a range of strategies to deliver SRE that will enable pupil participation and involvement in their learning. We aim to develop confidence and ensure confidentiality at all times.

We establish ground rules, use 'distancing' techniques, know how to deal with unexpected questions and encourage reflection.

 

Dealing with Questions

 

Having set the ground rules, we are aware that at times, we may be faced with inappropriate or personal questions. Strategies we may use are:

·        Remind the children of the ground rule – 'no one has to answer personal questions'

·        If a teacher is unsure of the answer, explain to the children that they will find out and answer at a later date.

·        Consult PSHE subject leader, colleagues or head teacher.

·        Divert responses that are not appropriate to that age group by explaining they will be looked at in more detail in another year group.

·        Recognise and respect different views

·        Liaise with parents / carers

·        If a question seems explicit or inappropriate acknowledge the question and then respond to it on an individual bases later.

·        If a pupil needs further support, s/he could be referred to the school nurse, counsellor, help line or outside agency after consultation with the parents / carers and head teacher.

·        If there are any concerns about sexual abuse, follow the school's child protection policy.

 

Consultation with pupils 

 

A key aspect in employing effective teaching and learning strategies is the involvement of our pupils in their learning. We provide opportunities for them to evaluate the resources and also the teaching methods they preferred, were most comfortable with, and best met their needs.

 

 

Recording and Assessment

 

In addition to the pupils' self-assessment, teachers will assess pupils through informal methods, such as observations and discussions with a particular focus. Pupils will compile a PSHE diary and samples of their work will be collated. Displays will be mounted to show developments and achievements.

 

Elements of SRE that occur in the Science curriculum will be assessed, through recorded work and national tests, to establish levels of knowledge and understanding. Some useful questions in assessment that teachers ask themselves and their pupils are:

 

  • Skills - what have they learnt to do?
  • Information - what do they now know?
  • Attitudes and values - what do they think, feel, believe?
  • Did all pupils e.g. girls and boys, engage equally with the activity?
  • What do they need to learn next?

 

 

Monitoring and Review of SRE curriculum

 

The review and monitoring process will be the responsibility of the PSHE subject leader and will include:

  • Review of planning and guidance
  • Liaison with class teachers
  • Classroom observation in line with other curriculum areas
  • Carrying out a regular audit of provision in order to ensure we are meeting the needs of all our pupils and delivering an effective programme

 

Governors, in liaison with class teachers, have the opportunity to observe SRE sessions. The PSHE subject leader is available to discuss the SRE programme with them informally.

 

Confidentiality

 

At Hankham, we are committed to acting in the best interest of all the individuals within the school community. SRE should take place within a safe and supportive environment that facilitates relevant discussion. Confidentiality contributes to this and will be used as a ground rule for all SRE lessons.

Pupils will be constantly reminded of the benefits of confidentiality and that it will be kept at all times, unless a teacher is concerned about their safety or that of another child. Teachers are aware that the teaching of SRE can lead to pupil disclosures and they are aware that they cannot offer unconditional confidentiality. Staff are aware of the schools child protection procedures and local guidance.

 

Liaison with Parents and Carers

 

Parents and carers will be informed of the teaching of SRE to their child. They are welcome to discuss this with their child's class teacher, the PSHE subject leader or the Headteacher.

Staff will consult with parents about any issues of concern regarding their child, or of any changes to the curriculum.

Parents and carers have the right to withdraw their children from all or part of the SRE provided at school, except those parts included in the statutory Science Curriculum. Parents or carers who wish to exercise this right should talk with the class teacher or the PSHE subject leader or the Headteacher. The issue of withdrawal will be handled, as sensitively as possible and alternative arrangements will be made for any child withdrawn from this aspect of the curriculum.

 

Specific issues and language to use (see Appendix F)

 

We recognise that some aspects of SRE for teachers, pupils, parents and the wider school community may be considered sensitive or challenging. We respect the varied beliefs and values held by our school community, however, personal beliefs and attitudes will not influence the teaching of SRE. Teachers and all those contributing to SRE are expected to work within our agreed values framework as described in this policy and supported by current legislation and guidelines.

 

Pupils may ask questions or seek information about specific issues. It is school policy to address these questions and provide information in a straightforward, age and maturity appropriate way. The school nurse may be used to support this process. In this way, pupils will be offered reassurance and will have misinformation corrected.

 

Child Protection Confidentiality and Disclosure.

 

1.      Hankham Primary School is committed to act in the best interest of all the individuals within the school community.

2.      All staff and children need to be clear about the rules of confidentiality

3.      The school is not in a position to offer individuals wholly unconditional confidentiality, indeed there may be situations in which confidentiality would not serve the individuals best interest.

 

 

If in any classroom discussion pupil disclose information that would alert staff to child protection issues, then the usual procedures must be followed. in line with Circular 10/95, Protecting Children from Abuse: The role of the Education Service. All staff and pupils must be clear when child protection procedures should be implemented.

 

'Staff have a professional responsibility to share relevant information about the protection of children with other professionals, particularly investigative agencies. If a child confides in a member of staff and requests that the information is kept secret, it is important that the member of staff tells the child sensitively that he or she has a responsibility to refer cases of alleged abuse to the appropriate agencies for the child's own sake. Within that context, the child should, however, be assured that the matter will be disclosed only to people who need to know about it. Staff who receive information about children and their families in the course of their work should share that information only within appropriate professional contexts. Child protection records should be kept securely locked.' Taken from Circular 10/95, Confidentiality Section.

 

 

Sex and Relationships Education

 

Scheme of Work – Key Stage 1

 

 

Expected learning - Italics indicate learning from Science programmes of study

 

By the end of Key Stage 1

 

Most pupils will be able to :

 

·        Recognise and compare the main external parts of the human body

·        Recognise similarities and differences between themselves and others and treat others with sensitivity

·        Identify and share their feelings with others

·        Recognise safe and unsafe situations

·        Be aware that their feelings and actions have impact on others

·        Make a friend, talk with them and share feelings

·        Use simple rules for dealing with strangers and resisting pressure when they fell uncomfortable or at risk

 

Most pupils will know and understand:

·        That animals, including humans, grow and reproduce

·        The humans and animals can produce offspring and these grow into adults

·        The basic rules for keeping safe and healthy

·        About safe places to play and safe people to be with

·        The needs of babies and young people

·        Ways in which they are alike and different from others

·        That they have some control over their actions and bodies

·        The names of the main external parts of the body including agreed names for sexual parts

·        That families are special

·        The similarities and differences between people

·        How their feelings and actions have impact on others

   

Appendix D: Teaching and Learning

 

The 'PSHE Continuing Professional Development Programme for Community Nurses and Teachers' handbook contains useful standards that provide a good checklist for the teaching of PSHE and SRE. This can be downloaded from http://www.pshe-cpd.com

 

Ground rules

Here are some examples of SRE ground rules. It is a good idea to try and have no more than five, as any more will prove difficult to remember and uphold.

 

  • Be kind to each other...therefore no put downs
  • No personal questions
  • Listen to each other
  • Be honest...therefore say what you feel and believe and not what you think you should say, e.g. for the teacher or your friends
  • Have fun
  • Join in if you can... therefore you can pass
  • Keep confidentiality
  • Use words we all feel comfortable with

 

Active learning strategies

The following active learning strategies encourage pupils to practise skills, use their knowledge and understanding, explore and exchange views:

 

  • Discussion & sharing ideas
  • Listening exercises
  • Case studies and scenarios
  • Trigger drawings, storyboards and photographs as a basis for problem-solving
  • Role-play and discussion
  • Videos and films
  • Using puppets
  • Questionnaires and quizzes
  • Storytelling
  • Attitude grids

 

It is important that children experience a wide range of learning strategies.

 

Differentiated teaching

Differentiated teaching is one way of meeting the needs of all pupils, which will be achieved in a number of ways:

 

  • Tasks designed to enable each pupil to achieve at their own level.
  • Extension activities for those who have achieved the first tasks to be given an opportunity to develop their understanding.
  • Teaching Assistants or school nurse can work alongside the teacher to support those who are struggling with the work.
  • The use of different resources according to ability.
  • Grouping by ability such as mixed ability groups or same level ability groups depending on the task set.
  • Active tasks, which do not always involve reading, writing or verbal skills.

 

Assessment for and of learning

Consultation with pupils such as through:

 

  • Graffiti sheets - where pupils write their responses to a session.
  • Question boxes - pupils are given the opportunity to anonymously write down any questions or concerns they have and post them in a question box, which the teacher can open and consider first before responding to the pupils.
  • Circle-time sessions - with the focus on evaluating a particular aspect of SRE.
  • Devising and completing questionnaires.
  • Using continuum lines - where pupils can respond to a question on an aspect of SRE by standing on an imaginary line of 1-10 e.g. how helpful did you find that session?
  • Reviewing the SRE programme through the school council.

 

Creating a safe learning environment

The following process and skills have all proved to be effective in developing a safe learning environment in which children and young people can feel confident exploring and learning about sex and relationships. (Extracts taken from Sex and Relationships Education: A Step-by-Step Guide for Teachers, Simon Blake, 2002)

 

·        Working agreements – often called groundrules. Negotiating these with the class provides an opportunity to consider the boundaries within the classroom. It also provides a positive message that there is going to be an environment where people are going to behave respectfully with one another. It also reduces the risk of unintended personal disclosure. Only limited confidentiality can be offered as part of the working agreement.

 

Ground rules should be referred to explicitly and displayed for reference with opportunities to focus on particular rules and celebrate progress.

 

·        Language – this should be negotiated as part of the working agreement so that everyone understands and is comfortable with the language used.

 

·        Offer clear boundaries – at the beginning of the session clarify what is going to happen and what people are going to do. Explaining what you are trying to achieve allows pupils to recognise when they have achieved the objective of the session.

 

·        Do not offer personal experiences – this can make the group feel unsafe and think that they are expected to do the same.

 

·        Participation of pupils in the planning, delivery and monitoring of PSHE/SEAL ensures that it is relevant to and meets their needs. This should be the starting point.

 

·        Setting the agenda with pupils so that they have an opportunity to contribute to the learning objectives helps to ensure relevance and interest.

 

·        Developing rituals – by following a similar process for each lesson pupils feel confident in the process and therefore engage more fully with the content.

 

·        Task setting – set clear and specific tasks. For example, set clear questions to go with a scenario rather than just asking pupils to discuss the scenario. Offer a timeframe and be specific about the feedback required.

 

·        Be confident.  By preparing well-structured activities and rehearsing responses to more challenging questions. Know that it is acceptable/good practice to say "That's tricky. I'm not sure about that. We'll look into that next time"

 

·        Repetition and reinforcement – aspects of PSHE should be revisited in order to assimilate learning and develop skills.

 

·        Provide encouragement and offer positive feedback.

 

·        Use a developmental approach that begins with topics that are safe, and explores values and attitudes once trust and cohesion have been established.

 

·        Use distancing techniques to encourage objectivity and support confidentiality.

 

·        Be inclusive and affirm diversity. Use terms such as partner rather than girlfriend or boyfriend. Be aware of different faith perspectives on sex and relationships, but do not make assumptions about pupils from a particular cultural, ethnic, or religious background. Check that resources are inclusive.

 

·        Give opportunities for reflection by using open-ended questions to allow pupils to think about their learning. Focus on how and why things happened rather than what happened.

 

·        Use open questions that enable discussion rather than a one-word answer. E.g. "What do you think about/have to say about…"

 

·        Have knowledge of confidential services that can be shared with pupils at the end of the lesson.

 

·        Use pairs and small group work and / or single sex groups for part of the lesson.

 

·        Be careful that humour does not descend into banter or become an attack on someone in the group.

 

·        Use a question box (the 'ask it basket') where pupils can anonymously post questions for discussion without being clearly identified.

 

·        Challenge constructively – it is your responsibility to maintain a positive learning environment. Challenge that is presented inappropriately or aggressively can impede learning by alienating individuals and making them feel defensive. Similarly, prejudice that goes unchallenged will also alienate individuals or groups and will reinforce the prejudiced view. Challenge can be made in different ways. It may be as simple as referring the group back to the working agreement or to school values. A challenge could be offered implicitly by naming the prejudice or using inclusive language. The group could also be asked 'Why do you think some people think that?' It may not always be appropriate to address an issue immediately. You could make a statement such as 'I don't believe that is true' or 'That is not an acceptable thing to say in this school' and move on, perhaps returning to the issue with that individual or the whole class at an appropriate time. The Sexuality Project, 2000, PSHE Advisory Team offers these different approaches to challenging homophobia, which would also apply to challenging other prejudice.

 

 

Challenging Homophobia

 

For further information please refer to Homophobic Bullying - Safe to Learn: Embedding anti-bullying work in Schools (DCSF 2007, 00668-2007BKT-EN)

 

walk away·        I'm not going to listen to rubbish like that
  
question·        What makes you think that?
 ·        What do you mean by that?
 ·        Let's talk about why people think like that
  
confront·        Language like that is not acceptable
 ·        A lot of people would find that offensive
  
personal response·        I'm not happy with what you said
 ·        I find that language really offensive
 ·        What you've said really disturbs me
  
organisational response·        This school doesn't tolerate language like that

 

Appendix F: Specific Issues - suggestions for responding to children's questions about SRE

 

As stated in the example policy, what constitutes a sensitive/challenging issue is likely to vary according to the individual, group, place or context. These are some suggestions for an approach on these issues and a way of responding to questions that take into account different views held.

 

However, to develop confidence and consistency in SRE, schools will need to explore and agree how they will address these issues with all staff. It may help to keep your response simple and specific to what you know of the individual asking the question. Staff should try to anticipate which issues might come up in a lesson and consider how they might respond.

 

The answers to any questions should also always be age appropriate and will, therefore, vary in detail and approach. There are lots of ways of answering these questions that will be appropriate to your school and pupils.

 

It is very important to stress mutuality and that in all sexual activity we should be sure that we are doing things people like and never force anyone to do anything they don't want to. Also stress it is always OK to tell someone if something is happening that you don't like and be prepared to follow Child Protection procedures if a child says anything that worries you.

 

The following suggestions should be discussed and agreed upon by the staff and should be tailored to your school ethos, aims and policy:

 

Having a set of ground rules provides boundaries over what is appropriate and not appropriate and about how to respond to unexpected, embarrassing questions or comments from pupils in a whole-class situation.

 

Suggestions for responding to questions:

 

If a question is of a personal nature, remind the pupils of the ground rule: 'no one has to answer personal questions'.

Question boxes will be used, when appropriate to collect questions. The teacher will read these questions and decide on appropriate responses before answering them in class. They should be kept anonymous when responding in public.

If a question is very explicit; seems too old for a pupil; or inappropriate for a whole class session, acknowledge the question and arrange to respond later on an individual basis.

If a pupil needs further support, s/he could be referred to the school nurse, school counsellor, help-line or outside agency.  

If you have concerns about sexual abuse, follow the school's child protection procedures.

If a teacher or member of staff does not know or is unsure of an answer, they will say so and explain that they will get back to the pupil later (and try to specify when).

The teacher could respond to a question by checking out what the pupil already knows, why they asked the question or by asking for further clarification.

Colleagues or the PSHE Co-ordinator can always be consulted for support. It maybe appropriate (having agreed with the pupil) to liase with parents/carers.

Lengthy or complicated responses are not usually necessary; a simple and concrete piece of information offers clarity and may avoid confusion.

Recognise different views are held, for example, about contraception and abortion.

Place within the context of the school's SRE curriculum, past and in the future. "At the moment we are looking at 'X', in Year 4 you will look at 'Y' in more detail".

 

The Sexual Offences Act 2003 does not have any bearing on the delivery of effective SRE that corrects misinformation and provides children and young people with the information that they require in an age and maturity appropriate manner.

 

The following suggestions for addressing specific issues and questions are listed alphabetically:

 

Abortion

This will not be delivered as part of the primary school curriculum but may be referred to in response to children's questions.

 

'Abortion is a way of ending a pregnancy when not wanted. People have different reasons for ending a pregnancy, and make their own choice for their own reasons. Abortion can be through a tablet or small operation. People may sometimes feel sad afterwards. Some religions do not believe people should have abortions.

 

'Hospitals and doctors also use the term abortion for miscarriage, when the pregnancy ends naturally'.

 

Anal Sex

This would not be delivered as part of the primary school curriculum but may be referred to in response to an older child's questions, probably not in front of the whole class. As ever, it is important to check their own understanding first and how they have come across this knowledge.

 

'Sometimes people have sex in different ways' may be enough information.

 

If the child asking seems to need more explanation possibly follow with something like 'sometimes people use other parts of their bodies for sex, including the bottom' and 'it is easy to pass on infections this way so it is important to use condoms'

 

Contraception

Consider the opportunity to begin to introduce this issue in brief and simple terms in the Year 6 Curriculum. It need only take 5/10 minutes explanation.

 

'Many people have sex for pleasure and enjoyment and they do not always wish to have a baby at that time. They can choose different ways to stop conception. You will learn much more about this again later on, at secondary school. Different religions have different views on contraception and some don't think you should use it.'

 

Condoms

Many children will have heard the word condom, or seen them and may ask you what they are.

 

'Condoms are a thin rubber cover that you can put on the man's penis to stop the sperm getting into a woman's vagina if they don't want her to get pregnant and also stop infections between people having sex'.

 

Erections

This should be included within the SRE programme and opportunities for gender specific sessions could provide opportunities for boys to allay anxieties around puberty.

 

'An erection is when the penis fills with blood and becomes hard . It can happen at anytime, especially around puberty. It is common and not something to worry about'.

 

Flavoured condoms

Again, some children will have seen these in vending machines and may ask about them.

 

'They can stop infections passing on. The flavour makes them taste and smell nice'

 If further questions are asked you could refer to the section on oral sex.

 

HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

'HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. People may not know about it until many years after being infected. The virus enters the blood and can be carried in four body fluids: blood, semen, breast milk, and vaginal fluid. It is difficult to catch; it is not possible to catch just through touching a person with HIV or AIDS, though you can be born with it if your mum is infected. However it is very serious and although there are now medicines to help you cope with it, there is no cure so we should protect ourselves from the virus, e.g. using a condom when you are old enough to have a sexual relationship and never touching anyone else's blood.'

 

IVF (In-vitro fertilisation)

'Some couples cannot make a baby through sexual intercourse. Sometimes a doctor helps them by putting sperm and an egg together in a test-tube so that they fertilise. The doctor then puts the fertilised egg inside a woman's womb and they wait to see if it will attach to the womb lining and grow into a baby.'

 

Love

Discussions about love and what it is are an important part of the curriculum, which should be explored. Resources including the Channel 4 'Living and Growing' DVD's and workbooks and the SENSE CD-Rom have good ideas on discussing this. Talking about the differences between loving your family, friends and 'being in love' should be discussed, as should the concept of sex being best in a loving relationship. 'Going out' is often a preoccupation with older children which should be talked about as well.

 

'Sometimes people have crushes on particular people, famous or ordinary. Sometimes we have those feelings for a long time and sometimes they go quite quickly. Usually people don't really 'fall in love' until they are older. It can be hurtful if someone rejects you at any age but in time you will feel better. It's fine not to 'go out' with anyone if you don't want to and there is plenty of time when you are older.'

 

Marriage and family Life

This may be delivered within the context of the SRE programme and with awareness and sensitivity to the diversity of children's backgrounds and home circumstances.

 

The DfEE SRE guidance states, 'Within the context of talking about relationships, children should be taught about the nature of marriage and its importance for family life and for bringing up children. The Government recognises that there are strong and mutually supportive relationships outside marriage. Therefore, children should learn the significance of marriage and stable relationships as key building blocks of community and society. Teaching in this area needs to be sensitive so as not to stigmatise children on the basis of their home circumstances'.

 

It is important to be sensitive to how children feel about themselves and how others relate to them, whatever kind of family they are in. You may be teaching children whose parents are divorced, separated, who only know one parent or who move between two homes, have step parents, live in foster care, are adopted or have lesbian or gay parents/carers. All children need to feel validated whatever the type of family they live in.

 

In response to a question on marriage the following maybe helpful.

 

'Marriage has always been a part of our society although people's reasons for getting married may have changed over time. It is a positive choice that some people make to recognise their caring, supportive, and committed relationship. It is often a reflection of personal and/or religious beliefs. There are other ways of having caring, supportive, and committed relationships, including living together. There are both religious and non-religious types of weddings. Same-sex 'civil partnerships' are a way for same-sex couples to celebrate their relationships too.'

 

It is important to emphasise it is the quality of the relationship that matters.

 

Masturbation

Consideration should be given to including talking about masturbation in the Year 5/6 curriculum. Discussions about masturbation and wet dreams could be given time within the single gender sessions. It is important that masturbation is not only assumed to be about boys.

 

'Masturbation is when a person touches rubs or strokes the sexual organs because it feels good'.

 

For older children you might add;

'It may be for excitement, enjoyment, or relaxation. It is something that is done privately. Not everyone does it. It does not do you any harm though some people and religions believe you should not do it'.

 

Menstruation

This issue should be discussed in depth in Years 5/6 with single gender discussion on dealing with periods. Menstruation should also start to be introduced lower down the school (Year 3/4) as the onset of menstruation can sometimes happen at age 8 or 9.

 

'Menstruation, often called 'having a period' is when there is a natural and normal loss of blood through the vagina over a few days each month. A sanitary pad or tampon is used to catch the blood. The blood is the lining of the womb that has developed when the body is getting ready to have a baby. Most girls start to have periods between the ages of 9 and 17, most often around 12 to14 years old. Women have periods until they are around 50 years old'.

 

Miscarriage

This will not be delivered as part of the curriculum but may be in response to children's questions;

 

'A miscarriage is when a pregnancy ends early and the baby dies. It is very common. It may be a sad and difficult time'.

 

Oral sex

Children do sometimes ask about this but it is not part of the primary curriculum. Deal with the question at a level suitable for the child asking.

'Sex involves lots of kissing, cuddling and stroking. Sometimes people use their mouths'

 

Orgasms

'When people become sexually excited they sometimes have an orgasm. An orgasm, is a very nice exciting feeling, which for a woman is in her clitoris and vagina and for a man means semen comes out of his penis. (Semen and urine cannot be passed out at the same time). Afterwards they feel very relaxed'.

 

Personal hygiene

This should be part of the PSHE curriculum from the early years and can be explored within the context of keeping clean and healthy. It is helpful to include girls wiping their bottom from front to back to prevent infection. When exploring puberty in KS2 it will be useful to look at why teenagers need to wash certain parts of their body very carefully e.g. armpits because of sweating.

 

It is also helpful to include cleaning behind the foreskin for boys and mentioning that some boys don't have a foreskin as they have been have been circumcised.

 

Sexual identity and sexual orientation

The focus in the SRE programme and if responding to questions on sexual identity is on building self-esteem and respect for self; valuing caring, loving and healthy relationships; avoiding prejudice and discrimination; and providing information and understanding to enable informed decisions. Assumptions should not be made about the sexual orientation of pupils or their families.

 

'Young people, whatever their developing sexuality, need to feel that sex and relationship education is relevant to them and sensitive to their needs. Teachers should be able to deal honestly and sensitively with sexual orientation, answer appropriate questions and offer support.' (DfEE SRE Guidance 2000).

 

Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988, was repealed in September 2003 and there are now no restrictions in talking about gay people. The age of consent for gay and straight people is now equal and civil partnerships mean a form of civil wedding is now possible for lesbian and gay people.

 

Addressing issues of homophobia and homophobic bullying needs to be supported by a school's anti-bullying policy as made clear in the new DCSF anti-bullying guidance; 'Safe to Learn: Embedding Anti-bullying Work in Schools, DCSF-00656-2007' issued in September 2007, which also includes specific guidance; Homophobic Bullying-'Safe to Learn: Embedding Anti-bullying Work in Schools) DCSF-00668-2007'

In response to a question on sexual orientation.

 

'Boys and girls may have good friends of both sexes. We all have sexual feelings of attraction and some people are attracted to and fall in love with people of the same sex/gender. Some young people have these feelings for just a while but some will always be that way. This is called being gay (or sometimes, for women, being a lesbian).

Some people and religions don't agree with it. Some people make fun and try to bully people because of their sexuality or use the word gay as an insult but this is never right.

You can have a chat with me (or suggest someone else e.g. school nurse) after class or later (specify a time) if you want to talk more about this'.

 

Sexual Intercourse

This should start to be discussed probably beginning in Year 4 as part of the Science curriculum and PSHE curriculum.

 

'Sexual intercourse, when the penis goes in the woman's vagina, should be a pleasurable activity between two people who care for each other and want to give each other pleasure. It involves cuddling and kissing and touching each other in special ways, not like kissing family and friends. Some people wait until they are married and others do not. Some religions believe you should only have sexual intercourse when you are married and want to have children. It is not something you do until you are older (it is against the law before the age of 16) and it is better if it is with someone you know very well, trust and want to spend more of your time with'.

 

For older children you could provide more detail;

 

'A man and a woman may decide to have sexual intercourse. When a man becomes sexually excited his penis becomes bigger and harder and a woman's vagina becomes wet and slippery. The man puts his erect penis into her vagina and they move so it goes in and out. After a while they often both have an orgasm, which for a woman is in her clitoris and vagina and for a man means semen comes out of his penis. This feels very nice for both of them. Sexual intercourse can be the start of making a baby. People often use contraception to make sure this does not happen'.

 

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's)

Within the context of keeping healthy and safe and having positive healthy sexual relationships (in the future), this area could be explored, typically within a Science lesson. Therefore, a session that considered the transmission of illnesses and diseases could look at risky behaviour e.g. not mixing or touching other people's blood (which should be emphasised anyway for children of all ages).

 

'There are a number of infections that can be passed from one person to another during sex. There are ways that people can protect themselves, including using condoms. You will have the chance to learn more about this in more detail in secondary school.'

 

Wet Dreams

Discussions about masturbation and wet dreams may be explored within the years 5/6 curriculum and be given time within the single gender sessions.

 

'During puberty, at night while sleeping, semen may come out of a boy's penis. It is a sign of his body growing up. It is not something to be anxious about but do not worry if you do not have them or do not notice them. We all grow at different times.'

 

 

Scheme of Work – Key Stage 2

(All areas of work complement the PSHE Scheme of Work and are to be taught with the unit of work – except items in italics which are to be taught during separate SRE lessons)

 Year 3Year 4

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

 

·  To recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements

·  To recognise when they have made mistakes and learn from them

·  Learn to recognise changing emotions and feelings and how they can affect themselves and others

·  To recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements

·  To recognise when they have made mistakes and learn from them

·  Learn to recognise changing emotions and feelings and how they can affect themselves and others

·  To deal in a positive way with their feelings towards themselves, their families and others as they approach puberty

·  Develop attitudes of positive self image by understanding the factors that affect it.

Preparing to play an active role as citizens·  Reflect on spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues using imagination and empathy for others·  Reflect on spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues using imagination and empathy for others

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

 

·  Understand what makes a healthy lifestyle including the benefit of exercise and healthy eating

·  Know that bacteria and viruses can affect health and that following simple, safe routines can reduce their spread

·  Develop a sense of self-worth and a positive approach to personal well being and safety

·  Begin to explore different views and attitude to health related issues e.g. smoking and diet

·  Recognise who to talk to and where to get help

·  Know about the physical changes that take place at puberty, why they happen and how to manage them

·  Know about personal safety including what kind of physical contact is acceptable

·  Know that pressure to behave in unacceptable and risky ways can come from a variety of sources

·  Develop greater confidence to in order to cope with pressure and manage personal behaviour

·  Recognise who to talk to and where to get help

·  About the life processes common to humans and other animals, and that they include growth and reproduction (Science)

·  About the main stages of the human life cycle(Science)

·  Understand what makes a healthy lifestyle including the benefit of exercise and healthy eating

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

·  Know more about relationships – the family, friendships and the changing nature of those relationships and the benefits of positive relationships

·  Know about the need for trust and love in established relationships

·  Begin to understand various family rituals and celebrations, including cultural differences

·  Learn about different forms of bullying people and the feelings of both bullies and victims

·  About why being different can provoke bullying and why this is unacceptable

·  Develop skills to manage their relationships e.g. listening, supporting, showing care

·  Identify and celebrate positive qualities and achievements in their relationships

·  Value diversity of life styles, the choices made within them

·  Recognise that all actions have consequences and take into consideration other peoples' feelings and opinions

·  Know more about relationships – the family, friendships and the changing nature of those relationships and the benefits of positive relationships

·  Know about the need for trust and love in established relationships

·  Begin to understand various family rituals and celebrations, including cultural differences

·  Learn about different forms of bullying people and the feelings of both bullies and victims

·  About why being different can provoke bullying and why this is unacceptable

·  Develop skills to manage their relationships e.g. listening, supporting, showing care

·  Identify and celebrate positive qualities and achievements in their relationships

·  Value diversity of life styles, the choices made within them

·        Recognise that all actions have consequences and take into consideration other peoples' feelings and opinions

 

Scheme of Work – Key Stage 2

 (All areas of work complement the PSHE Scheme of Work and are to be taught with the unit of work)

 Year 5Year 6

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

 

·  To recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements

·  To recognise when they have made mistakes and learn from them

·  Learn to recognise changing emotions and feelings and how they can affect themselves and others

·  To deal in a positive way with their feelings towards themselves, their families and others as they approach puberty

·  Develop attitudes of positive self image by understanding the factors that affect it.

·  Consider their reasons for personal preference

 

·  To recognise their worth as individuals by identifying positive things about themselves and their achievements

·  To recognise when they have made mistakes and learn from them

·  Learn to recognise changing emotions and feelings and how they can affect themselves and others

·  To deal in a positive way with their feelings towards themselves, their families and others as they approach puberty

·  Develop attitudes of positive self image by understanding the factors that affect it.

·  Consider their reasons for personal preference

·  Prepare for the transition to secondary school

 

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

·  Consider the concept of right and wrong and the impact / effect of anti-social behaviour such as bullying and racism on individuals and in the community

·  Begin to understand the impact and influence of the media

·  Develop questioning and interviewing skills

·  Present and assert a case of personal rights

·  Consider the concept of right and wrong and the impact / effect of anti-social behaviour such as bullying and racism on individuals and in the community

·  Begin to understand the impact and influence of the media

 

 

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

 

·  Develop the confidence to talk about personal health related issues

·  Make decisions related to relevant personal health issues and choices

·  Assess risk and make decisions about personal safety

·  Recognise who to talk to and where to get help

·  About the life processes common to humans and other animals, and that they include growth and reproduction (Science)

·  About the main stages of the human life cycle(Science)

·  Understand what makes a healthy lifestyle including the benefit of exercise and healthy eating

 

·  That safe routines can stop the spread of viruses including HIV

·  Recognise who to talk to and where to get help

·  Know more about the humans life cycle, significant events in this cycle e.g. becoming a parent, bereavement, making new relationships, marriage

·  Understand what makes a healthy lifestyle including the benefit of exercise and healthy eating

 

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

·  Know more about relationships – the family, friendships and the changing nature of those relationships and the benefits of positive relationships

·  Begin to understand various family rituals and celebrations, including cultural differences, including a wide range of family arrangements.

·  Know about the need for trust and love in established relationships

·  Learn about different forms of bullying people and the feelings of both bullies and victims

·  About why being different can provoke bullying and why this is unacceptable

·  Develop skills to manage their relationships e.g. listening, supporting, showing care

·  Identify and celebrate positive qualities and achievements in their relationships

·  Value diversity of life styles, the choices made within them

·  Recognise that all actions have consequences and take into consideration other peoples' feelings and opinions

·  Develop appropriate challenging attitudes to stereotyping including sexism, racism and disability

 

·  Know more about relationships – the family, friendships and the changing nature of those relationships and the benefits of positive relationships

·  Begin to understand various family rituals and celebrations, including cultural differences, including a wide range of family arrangements.

·  Know about the need for trust and love in established relationships

·  Learn about different forms of bullying people and the feelings of both bullies and victims

·  About why being different can provoke bullying and why this is unacceptable

·  Develop skills to manage their relationships e.g. listening, supporting, showing care

·  Identify and celebrate positive qualities and achievements in their relationships

·  Value diversity of life styles, the choices made within them

·  Recognise that all actions have consequences and take into consideration other peoples' feelings and opinions

·  Develop appropriate challenging attitudes to stereotyping including sexism, racism, disability and homophobia

·  Begin to know people, agencies and organisations that can help in relation to personal relationships, rights, responsibilities and citizenship

 

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